21 Greatest Achievements of India – Science & Technology

Greatest Achievements of India

21 Greatest Achievements of India – Science & Technology

India has been doing tremendously well in many sectors today. We have come a long way from the days of independence. While our country, to begin with, had many amazing strides in the past as well, in this article we will be noting down some of the greatest achievements of India. India’s achievements are numerous and include a strong democracy, robust roots of secularism, higher education, nuclear power, stunning economic growth, and revival of numerous aspects of traditional wisdom. Owing to the talent and will of the countrymen, we can see that India has reached among the top countries of the world especially creating strides in science and technology and various other fields. While many achievements listed in this post may be something that you are familiar with, we can assure you that many among the ones we’ve compiled for you are not that popular.

With this article, we hope to highlight various achievements in the field of science and technology that may surprise you and which have been extremely helpful for India and the world. Our scientists have unearthed so many discoveries and made such breakthroughs in science that today we stand tall among the international community. The country has seen and survived years of attack and destruction, apart from slavery and fight for independence, and come out, even more stronger and wiser than before.

When a poor fisherman’s son from the southernmost tip of the country can become the first citizen of the nation and get rated as the best ever President of this Republic – it is certainly a great sign of achievement. It shows that if you dare to dream, resolve to fulfill the dream, and work hard then, nothing is unreachable. India’s biggest achievement is the spreading of this message of hope and dreams across its population daring them to dream big and to go for the gold.

The following list highlights some of the greatest achievements of India and its citizens.

1. India has produced many fine scientists

Our country has been the birthplace of many fine and talented scientists who have left a significant mark on the community. These include the following luminaries:

a. S. Chandrashekhar

He was born in Lahore, British India in 1910 and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983 for his mathematical theory of black holes. He is widely known for his extraordinary work in the radiation of energy from stars, particularly white dwarf stars or dying fragments of stars. Interestingly, the Chandrashekar Limit is named after him. He is regarded as one of the pioneers in applied mathematics in astrophysics.

b. C.V. Raman

He was born in 1888 and felicitated with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for his extraordinary work on the scattering of light. He was born in Tiruchirappalli and is the first Asian to be decorated with the Nobel Peace Prize. He further also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments and investigated the harmonic nature of instruments such as a tabla and a mridangam. He also pioneered changes in wavelength when light reflects a transparent material. This is now known as the Raman Scattering and the phenomena are referred to as the Raman Effect.

c. Satyendra Nath Bose

He was born in 1894 in Calcutta and was an expert in quantum mechanics. He discovered a class of particles called ‘bosons’ which were named such in honor of him and to commemorate his fine work. His paper became the basis for Bose-Einstein Statistics.

d. Srinivas Ramanujan

He was born in December 1887 and was an Indian Mathematician.  With no formal training in pure mathematics, this wise man made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions.

Indian scientists in the initial half of the 20th century did more than making important new discoveries in the field of science. They creatively challenged an entire climate of opinion. Starting in the 18th century and until its independence in 1947, India was a colony of Britain. One of the more unfortunate legacies of colonialism was setting up a social order under which colonials were treated as superior and native Indians inferior.

Coming to education, this hierarchy meant that the intent of the colonial government in building colleges, schools, and universities was not to offer Indians a liberal education but to train them for subordinate civil service positions. Infrequently, however, an exceptional student went on to pursue a career in science. Bose, Raman, Saha, and Chandrasekhar were all products of India’s willpower to advance world-class scientists. The magnitude of the contributions of these fine scientific leaders toppled colonial assumptions about Indian’s capabilities and benefited India in moving successfully towards the path of self-reliance.

Apart from carrying out pioneering studies, these four exceptional scientists aided in establishing the infrastructure for conducting basic scientific research in India. Raman, whose influence on the development of science in India was so strong that he became a cultural and political hero and established the Indian Academy of Science. Saha established an Institute of Nuclear Physics at the University of Calcutta. Raman emphasized that the major function of older and experienced scientists was to identify and encourage talent and genius in younger ones.

Chandrasekhar used to drive a hundred miles each week to teach just two students, both of whom later won the Nobel Prize. Raman’s simple light-scattering technique became a daily laboratory tool, Saha’s theory of ionization became vital to work on stellar atmospheres, Bose laid down the foundation for quantum statistics, and Chandrasekhar’s theory on the evolution of stars furthered the understanding of the cosmos. Via their achievements, researchers both advanced International Science and curated a place for India in it.

2. Developed a satellite for domestic communication

The Indian National Satellite System or the INSAT is India’s very own domestic communication satellite. It has two multipurpose satellites in geostationary orbit, each of which has twelve 36 MHz-wide C-band channels, two 36 MHz-wide S-band channels and a Very High Resolution. India is one of the only few countries to have such a satellite. It is an extraordinaire achievement and puts us on the spot with some very developed nations. It has 5 large earth stations and 13 medium earth stations along with 10 remote area terminals. It is regarded as one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems and all the operational communication satellites of it are placed in the geostationary orbit.

3. One of the five nations to launch a nuclear submarine

India secured a spot among the only five nations to have launched a nuclear submarine by the name INS Arihant. This is India’s first step towards establishing a dominant position in all three domains. INS Arihant is a 5,000 Km range Submarine. The completion of the successful deterrence patrol of the indigenous INS Arihant in November 2018 marks a new era for India’s nuclear defense capabilities. Like we said earlier, this nuclear submarine is indigenous which adds another feather to our cap of achievements. India with this addition has adorned its naval fleet with a crowning jewel. Interestingly, this submarine was launched on Vijay Diwas by Dr. Manmohan Singh. The 20-day long patrol in November 2018 marks the completion of India’s nuclear triad.

4. Discovery of the Fibonacci numbers by Virahanka

While the proper application and usage may be discovered a while later it is found that the Fibonacci numbers were actually discovered by the scholar Virahanka. What is generally referred to as the Fibonacci numbers and the method for their formation were given by Virahaṅka between A.D. 600 and 800. The reference to this has been found in journals of Gopala (prior to A.D. 1135) and Hemacandra (c. A.D. 1150), all prior to L. Fibonacci (c. A.D. 1202). This means that way before Fibonacci, we already had the know-how of the same. Narayaṅna Paṅḋita (A.D. 1356) established a relation between his swastika-paṅkti, which contains Fibonacci numbers as a particular case, and the multinomial coefficients. This is also a testament to the fact that many such ancient discoveries lie unappreciated and unearthed.

5. As a Technological Hub

It is quite an interesting fact to know that India is one of the greatest hubs for Information Technology services. A report showed that out of the top 20 best Information Technology companies in the world, 5 companies are Indian companies. These companies include TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Cognizant, and HCL technologies. Apart from these five companies, we also are aware of India’s tremendous contribution to Silicon Valley.

Indian Tech companies have driven growth, increased access to resources, healthcare, and education, creating jobs, resulting in falling poverty levels, and advanced lifestyles. India is at the forefront of technology, innovation, and entrepreneurship, and 2019 has been regarded as quite the year for the Indian start-up ecosystem.

The nation is home to some of the youngest entrepreneurs in the world, with the average age of founders at a mere 27 years. The strong ecosystem has seen a rising number of successful start-ups being churned out and exits taking place, indicating signs of a maturing ecosystem. This has definitely led to an increase in superior quality entrepreneurs, investors, and mentors with past experience helping develop and accelerate new businesses. Multiple Indian start-ups are valued at US $1 billion or more.

Over the years, the nation has managed to overcome numerous adversities, including the shifting economic environments, a dearth in infrastructure, and inefficiencies within the system in addition to social and cultural barriers. The robust ecosystem has come of age and there are now more platforms for entrepreneurs to learn, develop, and create great companies than ever before.

The increasing middle class has also given rise to a new breed of entrepreneurs: educated, young, smart, ambitious, passionate, driven, and hard-working. The nation can now only move forward from here.

6. Solar Potential of India

India’s commitment to using renewable sources of energy is fairly new. This however does not mean that we have not endeavoured to equip ourselves with the setup to utilise renewable sources of energy such as solar power.

India’s total solar power capacity alone has advanced by more than 11 times for the last five years. From the year 2014 to 2020, the solar power capacity of India has increased from 2.6 Giga Watts (GW) to 38 GW. Solar power in India can help us tremendously. In fact, companies like Sukam power systems have electrified many schools in Africa in order to support the education of children in Africa. The solar power potential in India is very high and we have 20 Terawatts worth of solar power. States like Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Rajasthan have topped the list of states with the highest capacity installed solar power projects in the nation. The state of Karnataka alone has 5.3 Terawatts worth of solar panels. This further is accompanied by the world’s first fully solar electrified airport in Kochi and the world’s first fully solar electrified cricket stadium in Bangalore. This makes us environmentally conscious and responsible as well.

Reports have mentioned that India has one of the most competitive and lowest per-unit cost of solar power in the world. Per unit charge of solar power in India in nearly around Rs. 2.47.

7. Discovering a supercluster of galaxies

It is quite an interesting thing to know that a group of Indian astronomers discovered a supercluster of galaxies. Someone with no formal knowledge and study made this astonishing discovery. This supercluster of galaxies is one of the largest known structures in the neighborhood of the universe and is as big as 20 billion suns. The same has been named ‘Saraswati’. It is interesting to see how we have such untapped human resources.

8. Developing the atomic clock

The Indian Space Research Organisation or ISRO has made a path-breaking discovery. This is the invention of the atomic clock. With this invention, ISRO has put itself among the only few who possess this sophisticated technology. This clock is extremely useful in navigation satellites and also to measure the precise location data. Currently inventing this, the European aerospace imported the atomic clocks with a manufacturer named Astrium. It is honorable to know that we now possess this technology and can manufacture it indigenously.

9. ISRO launching a staggering 104 satellites on a single rocket

The India Space Research Organisation of ISRO demonstrated its expert skills when they launched a record of 104 satellites on a single rocket.  This displayed their ability to handle complex missions. Interestingly this is the highest number of satellites anyone has ever launched in a single mission. No other country at the moment has achieved this marvelous feat. India’s scientists have proved their metal by achieving this mammoth task which had never been done before.

10. Developing an indigenous cryogenic engine for GSLV-Mk III

The rocket that was described as a game-changer by ISRO is the heaviest rocket in India called GSLV-Mk III. The ISRO launched this heavy rocket with a cryogenic engine. The same was indigenously developed and is one of a kind. This step was taken in order to take a step closer to self-reliance when it comes to space exploration. With this, the country has shown that it is capable to launch rockets without any help from other space-faring nations.

11. An 18 year old developed the world’s smallest satellite

India is a land of numerous prodigies. It was recently reported that an 18-year-old with no more than a 3D printer made the world’s smallest satellite. Rifath Sharook, an 18 year old resident of Tamil Nadu wrote history when he designed the world’s smallest satellite and named it after the former President Dr. Abdul Kalam. The tiny 3D printed satellite was flown into space with a NASA Mission. It just goes on to show how creative young minds are and that the same require encouragement to do wonders.

12. Developing an indigenous supercomputer called PARAM

We are all pretty aware that India at one point in time faced a technological dilemma and the regime in the 1980s rejected the advances made in technology. PARAM- a supercomputer built indigenously marks our departure from the same. This first-ever indigenous supercomputer was built by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and the mandate of the same was to set up an indigenous supercomputer that met high –speed computational needs. So now we have it!

13. Developing the world’s fastest and anti-ship cruise missile

India developed a self-made seeker for Brahmos marking it as one of the fastest and most formidable anti-ship cruise missiles. This means that the country has carved a niche for itself and marks a huge achievement. The breakthrough in supersonic missiles will impose the caliber and class of missiles in India. The country has for the first time developed such a missile and we hope that it will continue to make such breakthroughs.

14. The Mars Orbiter Mission – the only one to reach Mars in the first attempt

An interesting fact that most of us are not aware of is that India is the only country with a successful first attempt at reaching Mars. The Mars Orbiter Mission made India the only nation in the world to reach Mars in its first attempt. The Magalyaan-1 is an indigenously built space probe that marks India’s first venture into interplanetary space. With this feat, we are now first in Asia and fourth in the World in terms of nations that have reached the surface of Mars. Mangalyaan-1 gives us a lot to be proud of and it is now upon our scientific community to see how we can enhance our skills of venturing into interplanetary space and carry forward the legacy of this marvelous feat.

15. Developed the world’s lowest costing supercomputer

India has been credited with making the world’s lowest costing Supercomputer. PARAM is the nation’s indigenously made supercomputer and it is interesting to know that at the same time we are a hub of producing affordable supercomputers, in fact the lowest costing one in the world.  Thus, we are bringing the technology to many-many states who do not have enough resources to afford the expensive versions of the same elsewhere.

16. Successfully designed low costing wireless telephony  

After the 1980s we have come a long way. India today has successfully designed very low costing wireless telephony. These have been a great breakthrough for the country’s own communication systems and the other nations as well. This serves a huge milestone for the world as now wireless telephony can be accessed by everyone at a decent cost.

17. Success in Chandrayaan -1 mission

When it comes to space exploration, India has yet another milestone to be extremely proud of. This is the Chandrayaan-1 Mission. This mission marks India’s first lunar exploration mission. The ISRO put much effort into making this mission a success and at its success, they have finally gone beyond the geostationary orbit. With the advent of this mission, India has emerged as the fourth country in the world to have hoisted its flag on the lunar surface. This achievement has also given the impetus to ISRO to make more such efforts towards missions like the aforementioned. The achievement is a matter of great honour for the nation.

18. Developing the IRNSS to have satellite navigational capability

Of all modern space-based services, navigation satellites always touch the lives of most people on the planet, even if they may not be directly aware of it. Navigation was one of the earliest applications introduced in the space race. India has been depending on navigational satellite systems designed by various other states for quite some time now. It was time to develop an indigenous system. The strategic value of critical data was clear, thus, with the backing of the Indian military, the proposal for an Indian Satellite Navigation System received all the financial and political support it required. With the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) the nation realised its dream of having an independent satellite navigation capability. This system has helped us realise our dream of developing a homegrown GPS system that could enhance our strategic interests. It is designed to offer accurate position data service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 Km from its boundary, which is its primary service area. This also comes as a huge help for our military.

19. Successfully test firing a Scramjet Rocket Engine

One would ask what an air breathing rocket would be. Well, ISRO successfully tested a Scramjet Rocket Engine, which essentially uses atmospheric oxygen from the surroundings to burn it with the fuel to produce a forward thrust. This technology is in stark contrast to the conventional chemical rocket systems that carry both the oxygen and the fuel together. The development of the high-speed technology system will take us a long way in ensuring that it meets India’s futuristic space transportation needs. Apart from which it also adds another feather into the cap of ISRO’s achievements.

20. The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment Mission

The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment Mission was India’s endeavor in establishing its technological ability to recover an orbiting satellite. This turned out to be a remarkable feat for Indian space prowess.  It was a remarkable achievement and the technology will now be used to develop recovery technologies for future human and robotic missions. This feat has strengthened our space faring capabilities and has given the ISRO yet again a thrust to move in the forward direction when it comes to space exploration.

21. Owning the largest domestic communications satellite in Asia-Pacific

India’s INSAT system is one of the largest domestic communication satellites that are owned by any nation in the Asia-Pacific region. It initiated a major revolution in India’s communications sector. This puts us on a list of a few who possess an indigenous communication satellite for domestic use in the Asia-Pacific region. It has been an extremely viable resource for our nation and continues to set us apart from other nations. At present, it is serving several crucial sectors of our economy, including telecommunication, education, and meteorology.

India of 2020 is massively different from India in 1947. As fifth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and third largest in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). With numerous advancements in the nation, it is no wonder that venture capitalists, multinationals, private equities, and foreign participatory investors are betting high on India’s growth story. It is also not a surprise that today India is also an attractive destination for foreign investment.

India’s improving economic performance and the talents of the Indian population has enabled the nation to bridge with both developed and developing countries. The nation has deepened its relationship with the United States, Russia, and Europe. The initiative taken by the government with the US on civil nuclear agreement opened a new chapter in India’s technological development.

The Indian government has always taken the lead in India’s active participation in the Asian community-building process. India today, as a nation, is warmly welcomed to almost every vital Asian and Asia-Pacific forum. India has advanced its economic and security engagement with the Indian Ocean and the Indo-Pacific region. The nation has strengthened its economic and defense relations with countries of West-Asia and the Middle East and of East and South-East Asia.

We at Deshpee strongly believe that more exciting transformations will come soon through which all our people will benefit!

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